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Copper Acetate Manufacturers(WSDTY) proposed we are interested to identify multiple biomarkers to evaluate the skin irritancy potential of various metallic compounds, specifically, copper acetate compounds. Keratinocytes make up 95% of the cells in the epidermis and play an integral role in regulating skin irritation. It was found that human keratinocyte cell line closely resembles normal keratinocytes in their growth and differentiation characteristics, hence allowing accurate prediction of response after treatment. After exposure to an irritant, the irritant will exert toxic effects on keratinocytes. This will activate the body’s innate immunity with the release of cytokines such as interleukin 1, alpha (IL-1α) in the keratinocytes. In turn, these cytokines will activate Langerhans cells, dermal dendritic cells and endothelial cells, which contribute to cellular recruitment to the site of insult. Neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages will then be released to further promote the inflammatory cascade23. These will lead to various symptoms of irritation such as itch, erythema, edema and pain. By monitoring the inflammatory responses, such as cytokine secretion and receptor activation, various biomarkers can give us an indication of the possibility of a safe and efficient transport of copper through skin to exert its beneficial effects.

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